De Juan Domingo Farnos
Networked learning is collateral, but as we have shown ICTs can be used as support for the construction of knowledge and learning. THE network itself TODAY BECOMES THE SAME LEARNING .. This is critical today; the rapid development of knowledge means we have to find new ways to learn and keep up. We can not increase our capacity for learning to infinity. We must begin to conceive
learning as social networking and technology-enhanced (which is a symbiosis of people and technology that shape our learning networks). We must recognize our learning context not only as a facilitator of learning, but as a participant’s own learning.
It is shown that in formal education, teachers (I will not say the institutions, educational organizations, schools and others) that are in “network”, ie, working and learning in the same, scholars who have digital identities open (eg, Twitter, blogs) share it with students as a form of exchange of information and / or engage in conversation and classes they teach themselves, wherever they work. Creating learning activities in open spaces online – these academic create learning activities open to students, for example, invite or require students to use a Twitter account, participate in chats on the website of Twitter during the class, blogs and / or creating courses online open spaces (for example,
Using the constant comparative method of analysis, we can enconytrar with :: social learning assessment, the balance between privacy and openness, the growth of digital literacies mentality and expectations of challenging roles.
We can assess the social learning can explicitly identify your teaching philosophy and constructivism
social, efforts to encourage further discussion of students and commitment, the importance of creating a learning community, and participation in the construction of knowledge, along with their students. Social activities were not created for learning in the classroom but can be developed within learning environments, but always with an open, inclusive and ubiquitous vision, if we are to give a unique sense of formality and prescription, at this time LOSES worthless.
In this way learners can reflected on their identities / personal and professional activities online, some by the collapse context, ie flows conversations about work, family life, social activities, sports, politics, worry etc . Others want to distinguish between their personal and professional activities online the most challenging to manage often limit their immediate colleagues. This is expressed most often as the dilemma: I will accept this friend request from my colleague / acquaintance working in Facebook? All we must be clear that we learn by personal decisions, but is under our responsibility and commitment to do it correctly when we interact with others (SOCIAL LEARNING).
Yet many teachers remain in establishing boundaries between teacher-student (red lines that can not pass students and teachers can not accept) This is expressed most often as maintaining a professional distance.
Growth Mindset Re: digital literacies:
Academic staff who value social learning and balancing privacy and openness may be predisposed to the use of open practices for teaching education. Yet another factor is necessary to have digital literacies, or perhaps more specifically, having a growth mindset re: digital literacies.
[Having a growth mindset re: digital literacies includes being aware of a series of open digital tools; understanding how to use several, both technically and pedagogically tools; keep abreast of changes in the landscape of digital tools and open; and most importantly, have a lot of confidence about learning and experimenting with new tools and new features. Staff with highly developed digital literacies are more likely to have the confidence and skills necessary to manage privacy settings, negotiate various social media tools, and operate in complex ecosystems agency social media.
One of the most important tasks is to define the best possible user profile or profiles to which we are headed. What differentiates an amateur creator materials of a professional is the first think of their material in the second recipients;
The new vision of education promotes the use of information technology to facilitate learning by involving students, promoting creativity, foster self-directed learning, collaboration and advanced thinking skills.
If we intend to conduct and lifelong learning throughout life (life long learning) is important to create a foundation to prepare for other learning situations and / or create a false sense of learning?
I guess you will agree that we must prepare personally and socially, and not only that, but also associate it with a transformation of contexts and that in the creation of a new culture with other values.
It may happen that some will say it can also produce “false learning” and it is true, but that’s always what is meant by learning and what each person is willing to make.
It is a path that says complicated, when it really is the easiest thing we can do, what happens is that we do not realize most of the time or, we do not want to happen since we’re fine with what we have done all the time.
A widely accepted way of understanding learning in society in general and also in academia and training, is to conceive in terms of acquisition and retention. Some of the features that this approach promotes students may be:
increases its data warehouse;
builds a repertoire of skills and procedures;
problems divided into subunits;
it works logically and methodical;
uses memorization skills;
it establishes links within knowledge units;
systematically use trial and error to solve problems.
The latter orientation is consistent with the constructivist philosophy in vogue in media education and training. In the field of educational technology, surpassed the stage of the preliminaries model of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and expanding the horizons of artificial intelligence towards a diversification of educational psychology paradigms and expanding the horizons of artificial intelligence towards diversification educational psychology paradigms (Ruiz Carrascosa, 1995), we can say that with the development of multimedia and hypermedia systems and data communications networks we are witnessing a revival of alternative concepts of education under new, such as’ constructivism ‘nomenclature, and’ learning collaborative ‘.
. These models, which can be described under the parameters of flexible and situated learning, social construction of knowledge and personal involvement in the content to be treated, demanding alternative ways of learning assessment.
- New forms of assessment for new ways of teaching and learning New technologies, especially web-based, are leading teaching and training in directions that may seem appropriate from the point of political or economic views, but not always ideal from a pedagogical perspective.
- Although learning through web-based can be presented as ‘technically new’ platforms, this does not automatically lead to improving the quality of such learning. A didactic design quality is irrespective of the medium; Another thing is that the latter offers greater possibilities of application. Something similar happens with the assessment of learning when it has basically realized in learning platforms. Just as it is possible to design learning environments that support hypermedia technology constructivist principles in the more technical aspects, but not in the underlying philosophy of the model,
Therefore, when planning the assessment of learning in an environment like the Internet, from the responses should we give to a number of preliminary considerations:
Consider the tools and evaluation possibilities offered by the learning environment based on Internet we have developed.
Explore ways more consistent evaluation of the learning approach adopted.
Contemplating how to integrate harmoniously the choices made in the levels of previous decision.
2.1. Tools and evaluation possibilities through Internet
One of the tools that has been used for the assessment of learning through Internet is the software to design tests with possibility AutoCorrect closed. The main advantages of this type of methods have been revealed by McCormack and Jones (1997)
Save time in its development and distribution.
Reduce response time, increasing the positive effect of feedback.
Reduce human and material resources.
Allows storage of results and further treatment.
Relaxes the time the student has to perform the evaluation.
Thus, this type of Web-based assessment provides some educational benefits. From the point of view of the student, frequent and regular assessment provides reinforcement of concepts and increases motivation. Trainers, meanwhile, can design reviews for each module without worrying about having to find the time and resources to analyze the results: As discussed later, most of these tools provide automated reports.
Students can access these tests at any time, privately and in the comfort of your own home. Since the results are computerized, students receive immediate feedback. This can also help students who suffer from anxiety screening tests to relax and minimize the burden of those who tend to underperform.
When the era of learning via the Internet began to take shape, Romiszowski (1993) and showed concern about what he termed as a trend towards interactivity surface level, depending on which students have the control to navigate through large amounts of information. He argued that although this may seem a means trainer, unless the student can give specific learning goals not have clear criteria to choose which content to access.
In this sense, the use of tests and tests self-checking, if well conceived and designed, can help guide the learning process of students, helping them to check whether apprenticeships they are performing effectively respond to what is expected of them .
McCormack and Jones (1997: 241-242) have also noticed the drawbacks of this type of instrument:
can encourage students to become accustomed to the method point and click, generating some difficulty in evidence that demand deeper into the answers.
be perceived as an impersonal approach, fostering in students a sense of anonymity and isolation when faced alone with a machine. Subjecting students continued use of these tests can cause them to lose their value as assessment tools.
The possibility of consulting the material before offering answers and the tendency to introduce simple questions to provide positive feedback can foster a false sense of confidence among students.
The difficulty of introducing high-level issues such tests can generate a rote learning and feeling that all that is required is memorizing the material.
The nature of the answers can be restrictive.
Ultimately, this type of testing responds to a model behaviourista learning more, so their contributions to Constructivist environments must be carefully planned. In this sense, a model of autonomous learning they can leverage their motivational potential, immediate feedback and self-control of the content that each is addressed, rather than use them as external control measures of learning. Therefore, it is interesting in its design include clues that suggest students the correct answers, and links to reference materials related to that content.
Although self-tests are the most exploited to assess learning through Internet, the network provides other resources with high educational value. Email lets you attach files with reflections on a topic, personal constructions on a research problem, literature search findings, possible answers to a problem case presented by the teacher, etc. This type of work also benefit from the advantages of flexibility targeted for self tests, involve a focus on the processes of understanding and transforming concepts.
Most integrated environments also allow the possibility of publication of these works, so that all students can access them and thus encourage peer review practices. Other tools, such as chat or discussion lists, with synchronous format or asynchronous respectively, have a high potential not only for the exchange of ideas and therefore learning, but also for evaluation, especially in the case of assessing attitudes.
Another way of understanding learning is to conceive it in terms of understanding and conceptual change. According to Atkins (1993), students who come to this orientation manifest the following three characteristics:
A mastery of the principles and concepts, including the ability to apply them to an understanding of the ‘real world’;
an understanding of the methods of knowledge construction that uses a particular discipline;
a commitment to the social context of the discipline, including ethical and moral issues related.
“Evaluation as learning (Personalization): … is based on research on how learning occurs and is characterized by students reflect on their own learning and make adjustments to achieve a deeper understanding
Assessment as learning is the responsibility of students, who must learn to articulate and defend nature and quality of learning. When students reflect on their own learning and “communicate” to others who are stepping up their knowledge about a topic, their strengths on learning, and areas where they need to develop further (feedback), then it is when LEARNING AUTÉTICO produces ..
Computer assisted learning should be promoted:
a-meaningful learning and collaboration involving challenging assignments and real life;
b-technology as a tool for learning, communication and collaboration
c-evaluations based on performance (for example, if we want to know if a student can collaborate using technology, we would have to write an essay on the subject, one would see to collaborate with other students).
HTML forms also can be used to assess understanding of concepts and, more especially, for the evaluation of previous ideas of students around certain learning content. HTML forms allow the teacher to get some feedback from students related to learning that the latter are doing. Brooks (1997) considers this as a useful interactive strategy, while recognizing that integration in distance learning environments today requires programming skills. An HTML editor, however, allows us to create simple forms that are sent directly to the email address you want. A choice more complex, but equally viable and useful, it is to build forms using CGIs,
2.2. alternative assessment approaches
In designing constructivist environments it has begun to extend the idea of alternative assessment, reflecting frustration with approaches
traditional evaluation, and the desire to determine the achievement of educational goals higher order involving a deep understanding and active use of knowledge in complex and real contexts (Reeves and Okey, 1996). Hammond and Collins (1991), raise the issue of alternative assessment processes self-directed learning, and understand basically as one in which the subjects of learning involved in some way in establishing evaluation criteria and the same process evaluative. In this sense, they offer at least five reasons why you should encourage self-assessment and peer heteroevaluation self-directed learning processes:
The alternative assessment is consistent with the principles of self-directed learning, and questions the traditional evaluation as one of the most powerful sources of teachers in conventional systems.
The alternative assessment promotes learning, insofar as it is designed to constitute an opportunity for this to take place.
The alternative assessment shows respect for students and their opinions, and understands that learning is an internal process that can not be accurately measured from outside.
The alternative assessment provides preparation for lifelong learning, which depends on the acquisition of skills of self-control and self-evaluation.
It is possible to rely on self-assessment and peer heteroevaluation; In fact, rather than overestimating one’s performance students often do the opposite. Some alternative assessment approaches take some time to apply in constructivist environments in ways such as authentic assessment, performance assessment, portfolio assessment, etc.
A brief description of each of these types of evaluation can be found in Reeves and Okey (1996). It is mostly approaches that have emerged in fields such as art, military or engineering, and have begun to be applied to education. All have in common their direct relationship or even identification with the same learning tasks. Although its implementation is not without problems, together make arrangements with some potential for proposing alternative mechanisms for evaluation. No need for a commitment to any of them, each can offer interesting contributions in the planning of the evaluation:
From authentic assessment can stay with the idea that the tasks proposed must achieve in which makes a sense of belonging and a positive attitude towards it (ie, its utility), and must be implemented faithfully (ie with the possibility of replication) to real situations.
The evaluation of execution is important to consider the emphasis on planning valid activities with reference to a specific purpose, and consider the possibility that such activities provide for the application of knowledge in contexts poorly defined and open to multiple alternatives, each of which demands the implementation of higher order processes and problem solving skills.
The evaluation of portfolio stress the importance given both the process and the product and the benefits of sharing this work among students.
Taken together these contributions, it is clear that the same activities proposed for learning about content can be legitimately used to evaluate acquisition. For Reeves and Okey (1996) environments Constructivist learning and alternative assessment help to diffuse the traditional division between learning and assessment, which is endemic in most educational settings, and suggest a number of reasons why a constructivist environment makes no sense separation between learning activities and assessment:
constructivist learning environments are related to what and how learning, or what is the same, not only learning outcomes but also the processes through which you learn.
Assessment in constructivist learning environments should be as broad and varied as the environment itself.
The resource and time constraints suggest that the same activities that serve to learn also serve to evaluate.
The assessment should be presented in a markedly different than in traditional contexts of assessment, which analyzes knowledge of how fragmented and decontextualized instead of analyzing the performance against real-world tasks.
Openness and transparency should govern the procedures and evaluation criteria, just as constructivism encourages a similar dialogue concerning what to learn and how to do it.
2.3. Including alternative methods of assessment through Internet
Than it targeted so far shows that a constructivist environment demands resources to include motivation as an important factor in the assessment procedure, especially in environments that are too dependent factors intrinsic motivation, such as self-regulated learning via the Internet . To this can contribute using autoverificables tests, which in any case needs to be supplemented with other more divergent modalities, such as open trials or development work around a topic, as well as assessments consider the self-review, peer review the level of participation in discussion lists, etc .. These other modalities need not be different from the proposed tasks for learning,
The focus of learning activities and assessment should be on implementation and active use of knowledge in real situations and poorly defined.
The proposed activities should respond to such clear and explicit goals.
The student must find educational value and evaluation time in such tasks, so the optionality and diversity in the proposals should be a real variable.
The very purpose of the evaluation must be oriented to emphasize the strengths of the student and provide information that will enable them to make their own decisions about goals and learning activities.
It is important to encourage reflection on the work done, self-assessment regarding the level of mastery of content, and exchange and peer review products. It seems clear that some technological resources incorporated the use of computers open up new possibilities for these alternative approaches. This is especially evident in the case of portfolios mechanisms, incorporated in numerous packages and educational software and whose use begins to show a greater commitment of students in self-assessment and self-learning (Read & Cafolla, 1997). E-mail, databases and discussion lists, meanwhile, allow you to store and share the work of students in their process and their products, and speed in both directions feedback mechanisms. But again, even in the case of evaluation technology can be used to implement and operationalize a particular philosophy of learning.
Some applications for synchronous or self-assessment by synchronous learning assessment will understand here based practices self tests immediately, and are designed to motivate and guide students in their learning process. Other possible, such as chats, synchronous tools do not consider here.
The IT market currently offers different tools to build tests and assessment tests oriented distribution via the Internet. Some of the most commonly used Web @ ssessor are developed by the Arizona-based ComputerPREP, Decisive Survey, developed by the Decisive Technology of MountainView, California, and Question Mark, of AssessNet. A detailed description of each of these tools can be found in Hall (1997). We stop here on two different types of software whose usefulness we have experienced in distance learning initiatives put recently launched.
- To design these activities several elements are needed:
raise a question about a content addressed;
possible responses to this question (usually 5), with the possibility of being correct one or more of these responses;
accompanying explanations, for feedback, justify why certain response option is true or false. Thus, selecting a particular option, not only know if our choice was correct, but also why. Figure 1 shows how would the
Design of these exercises on the web:
Exercises to short response (JQuiz). Another type of exercises possible is the short answer. It is to ask a question that can be answered with one or few words. To build such an exercise is necessary:
raise a question about a content addressed;
include multiple responses (up to 4), all of them valid for the question. The construction of an exercise of this type poses the problem that the response offered by the student to be successful, must be exactly the same as we initially introduced. This requires that the question is posed clearly supports only one type of response, and it is composed of very few words. A content type easily applicable to these exercises is related to write the concept defined in the statement.
b-type exercises crossword (JCross). A crossword puzzle can also be an activity that is requested, for example, identify a concept from its definition.
In this case, the elements are as follows:
Select the words we want to appear in the puzzle;
establish the distribution of these words horizontally or vertically;
include the definition for each of these words, considering that from this definition the student must identify the corresponding word. to. Exercises to relate (JMatch). These exercises are the typical presenting two columns to relate the elements of one with another.
The condition is that each element in the left column have a single correspondence with another element of the right column. To carry out an exercise to relate, the student will then show all possible options on the right, in each case must choose the appropriate one. You can also include graphs, tables, etc., from which set the criteria relationship. b. Exercises to fill gaps (JCloze). Another form of exercise that can be used with HotPotatoes is to fill gaps in a text with keywords. Obviously, the text must be sufficiently explicit and contain the necessary to indicate the missing words clues.
It may be useful, for example, for an overview of a series of contents.
The elements needed to build a test of this type are: compose a full text:
Select on keywords, which will be the student must identify;
provide various synonyms (up to 3) valid for each of these keywords. Remember that the text we draft should allow relatively clearly identify the missing words; this implies that such words or synonyms to think for them must have some relevance in the set of content to which they refer.
3.2. Self adaptive tests: Question Mark Perception 2
An integrated much more powerful and sophisticated software than before, but with a greater number of technical and economic requirements, the package is prepared by Question Mark Computing (http: http://www.qmark.com/perception). Perception is software designed specifically for creating tests, questionnaires and other forms of evaluation for use over the Internet or intranets. It has been designed basically for assessment of distance learning in university contexts, although other possible uses are not discarded.
The most characteristic feature of Perception, providing you with their potential for learning through Internet is the ability to build item banks which are then randomly selected to configure a particular session, which is to found the student in Web. This session can be designed with different levels of difficulty, so that the student sees increase or not the complexity of the questions depending on the answers you offer.
In this connection, tests with Perception fall into the category of what is known as Computerized Adaptive Tests (TAC). Compared to conventional tests, which all students must meet the same items following a pre-established sequence, the TACs bring the idea of appropriate to the particular situation of each student tests, adapting the level of difficulty of their items depending on the answers that everyone will offering (Renom, 1993).
Regarding the possibilities, Perception is a relatively easy to use software. With the first of your Windows applications, Question Manager, the trainer can design all the items you want around a specific topic or subtopic and group following hierarchical criteria. Possible types of questions are also varied, with greater possibilities than permiteHotPotatoes: multiple response activities, multiple choice, true-false, to relate, filling, matrix, numeric type …
In developing each question, the trainer decides what score will correspond to each of the answers, also admitting the possibility that a reply is partially valid. Likewise, each possible answer may be accompanied by feedback to justify why this is a valid or wrong choice.
With the second Windows applications, Session Manager, the designer can decide how many questions will comprise the test, whether they be selected randomly, and if the student can move through it in a hierarchical manner based on the answers you give.
Also with an equivalent level of difficulty, or are given the possibility to access the part of related topics assessed for review, or both contents, all depending on the choices made by the designer the session. In all these cases, the student gives the end a report defining the percentage of successful and wrong answers, and corresponding to each feedback. Similarly, the trainer receives a report with various self-generated data related manifested by the student in teach of the performance tests.
And at the end of this whole evaluation process, remember that feedback, will be set then so evaluative dynamics is a continuous flow that will not end until our students have finished their training process with the achievement of the objectives initially they intended, always leaving open the system, so that at some point you can return to it to use some aspects that were considered proven and can improve or change.
In a future that is almost already present, the most demanded skills are active listening, speaking, critical thinking and reading comprehension, while less important skills include science, programming and design technology.
In other words, the “soft skills” are more necessary for human work. While this may seem obvious to many educators, it is refreshing to hear this from a business perspective as well.
As Tony Bates says, could not improve, or if you go, the following provisions, but if all this is referred to Canada if I’m able to extrapolate it to anywhere in the world, and a categorical form
I can not improve summarized in the report itself:
- Over 25% of Canadian jobs will be severely affected by technology in the next decade. Full half will go through a significant revision of the required skills.
- An evaluation of 20,000 ratings in 300 occupations and skills 2.4 million expected vacancies shows a growing demand for basic skills such as critical thinking, coordination, social perception, active listening and solving complex problems.
- Despite the large projected labor movement in many sectors and occupations, it is expected that the Canadian economy add 2.4 million jobs in the next four years, all of which require this new combination of skills.
- The education system, training programs and labor market initiatives in Canada are not adequately designed to help young Canadians navigate this new economy skills.
- Canadian employers are generally not prepared through recruitment, training or retraining, to recruit and develop the necessary skills to make their organizations more competitive in a digital economy.
- Our researchers identified a new form of group work in six “groups” based on essential skills by occupation and not by industry.
- By focusing on the fundamental skills required within each of these groups, it is possible a high degree of mobility between jobs.
- The digital fluency is essential for all new jobs. This does not mean we need a nation of coders, but a nation that can read and write digitally.
- global competencies as cultural awareness, language and adaptability will be sued.
- Virtually all job openings give great importance to the judgment and decision-making, and more than two thirds will appreciate the ability to manage people and resources.
So no, automation will not eliminate all the work for humans, but much will change the nature of that work, and it is in this sense that the technology will be disruptive. workers will be needed in the future, but workers must be very different from the past.
This has massive implications for teaching and learning so I say that the present education system, are inadequately designed to help young people navigate this new economy skills.
The most demanded skills are active listening, speaking, critical thinking and reading comprehension, while less important skills include science, programming and design technology.
In other words, the “soft skills” are more necessary for human work. While this may seem obvious to many educators, it is refreshing to hear this from a business perspective as well.
(What does this mean for teaching and learning?
There are several challenges that I see:
-first: to make teachers and trainers accept that these (and other) skills should be taught in any domain of matter; -Second: since it is not likely that these skills are developed within a single course, identifying the best way to teach these skills at different ages, along a study program, and indeed throughout life; : Third: codifying these skills in terms of appropriate teaching and assessment methods; Too often teachers say they are teaching these skills, but if so, is often implicit or it is unclear how or even if students acquire these skills.
We need to determine how best digital / e-learning technology can support the development of skills. For example, the well-designed digital learning can enable skills practice and feedback to scale, freeing teachers and instructors to focus on what should be done face to face.)
——– That obviously that’s improved and in fact I Amortized: no longer will teachers who tell learners what and how, but they will be learners who take responsibility for His learning.
——– The learning will be throughout life and social recognition is not based on titles and monopolies educational institutions, but learning, work, etc., coexist together as a single “soul” .
——– Apprentices are those who think, design, implement and provide feedback both the skills and their transformation into other, always inclusive, and decide upon each of them.
Technologies obviously will always disruptive, but above them, people with their disruption will always pending developments.
When we give control and empower students to learn from the way they want with the tools they want, the results are fantastic and students are associated with their teacher in the design of learning methods, tools and environments that are the best for them.