What is the role of ICT in the classroom?  )


as ICTs have many advantages in the teaching-learning process such as: 
– Eliminates time-space barriers between teacher and students and vice versa. 
– Create scenarios more attractive, interesting and flexible learning. 
– Power independent learning. It also provides a learning  independent, collaborative and group work. 
– Provides continuing education by both the students and teacher. 
– Leave behind the idea of schools as the sole formative stage. 
– Provides new ways for tutoring students. 
– ICTs provide new and better learning for children with special educational needs.

Although they also have disadvantages: 
– The existence of such information leads to an excess of it with what the student is obliged to own criteria. Although from my point of view this selection criterion is necessary because we have children so critical and able to decide for themselves. 
– The incorporation of these advances in education requires a large financial outlay. 
– Do not just enough to incorporate ICTs into education but must also be a teacher capable of efficiently and effectively handle.


How we are preparing to meet this challenge? (Teachers, Schools and Universities, Directors, Administrators and Deans, Community and Government. How will the Education of the XXI century?.

According Gonella (2006) require strong leadership and teamwork highly trained, permanent innovation, assuming all the role players drive and support ICT development real solutions to take the great challenge we have today; Taking into account this then the following statement actors must have certain conditions to assume this responsibility and success. 
Ø Government: Education policies should be clear and its goals should be short to medium term and should be aimed at the organization’s national education system in the context of new technologies. 
Ø Community: guarantors and should be vigilant that government policies are aimed at meeting the needs of the new technological age society. 
Ø Schools and Universities: These institutions in charge of proposing models contextualized ICT management-oriented training of capable and productive individuals worthy representative of the society. 
Ø Directors, Directors and Deans: They are the managers who must plan, organize, implement and control the processes taking place within the institutions they lead. 
Ø Teachers: I need to change its role to be facing the current era where the rule is and will be turbulence and where it is no longer the leader of the educational process because there is now a shared leadership. 
Education XXI century according to Ferreira (2004) is centered on the student and their overall development, ie its formation is: academic. Social, humanitarian and political. The student is directly responsible for their learning and the teacher plays a facilitating role.

SOURCE: Gonella, C (2006). Information society and governments in Latin America. USA 

We understand that while the use of ICT is a fundamental pillar of quality in the teaching process – learning, adoption is immersed in a much more important and complex is the innovation of teaching.

It is important to bear in mind that a model like the one proposed, it must necessarily be approached from different angles, where one can not neglect any, regardless of the degree of importance gained from the development process. The complement of all elements involved in this process: Education, Technology, Culture and Organizational Learning, are relevant by themselves and as a whole.

The institutions of education to remain relevant and competitive, they must adapt their processes of innovation on an ongoing basis according to changes that may occur in the educational, technological and social. Hence the importance of collaborative networks, in order to share information, experiences, joint projects, knowledge and openness to others, leading to continued progress as to maintain a level of quality, according to the demands of globalization.

In the context of education, educational pressure has been faced with a technological pressure, equally strong, which aims to improve learning. However, as Laurillard argues, perhaps technology can succeed where they failed educational innovations While ICT in isolation, are only a means, they should not downplay the educational context, its use with an educational background appropriate, is a powerful tool in the training of highly competent professionals in a globalized world.

The Learning Management Systems (LMS) have achieved an important position in the institutions of education as a means to facilitate technological resources in an integrated way, that enable innovation in teaching practices, from the construction of learning environments and development active methods.

From the educational perspective, there are several problems that hinder the path to new pedagogical models: lack of time, lack of specific training, lack of resources and technical resources, overcrowding and the need to personalize education, among others. These and other difficulties will be overcome if teachers clearly assume the change, ie, accept and internalize a new concept for the teaching-learning process, where:

  • The possession of knowledge is not solely the teacher.
  • Knowledge is not static.
  • Learning requires the adoption of an active role by the student.
  • The teacher should teach strategies to access, search, selection and structuring relevant information.
  • It is essential to an establishment of clear learning goals to avoid loss in the midst of so much information.
  • Learning has to be contextualized to contribute to the integration between theory and practice.

In short, good teaching is one that exploits new media to get the student to develop independent learning, enabling him to be ready for training.

In addition to the active and motivated teachers, you need a strong institutional commitment. The organizational culture in an institution of higher education, promote the production and research, encouraging them through various types of incentives. In this sense, teaching and the processes that enable innovation to be disadvantaged. Currently, however, these processes have acquired strategic importance for universities.

It is difficult to give a recipe for innovation in teaching incorporating information and communication technologies, and give clear and detailed what to do to be successful, because we must consider that if not addressed adequately the terms of the real context simply will not work. However, having a model that is supported by the consistent articulation of pedagogy and technology that is flexible and allows its adaptation from the real experience is a very valuable tool for developing a better process incorporation of ICT.


Change and Innovation has become a constant in organizations, given the environment of globalization, which calls for ongoing review of its bases and dizzying technological renovation, taking the Internet as a representative “official” so-called new technologies.

The central point in an environment of innovation, it is not defining what you want to change, but change how it manages defined, especially in an environment of technological innovation, since such innovation does not ensure a “Change” positive for the companies involved. It is therefore necessary to take the paradigm of smart, that is developing and encouraging infoculture capabilities.

However, the transformation process is not resolved by the mere fact of adopting ICT, since these alone do not constitute change, but rather the main contribution to effective implementation of the new educational paradigm. This process also requires changes in roles, acquire new skills and competencies of the actors involved, as a natural consequence of the integration and adoption of ICT.

The process is proposed on certain elements that the institution should be defined for proper development related to the existence of: a Learning Management Platform, Technology Resources, Educational Model.

In addition to building understanding and involvement of groups of teachers in the process, determine an appropriate strategy for attaining the objectives of the different phases, based on the methodology shown in Figure 1:

The developed model seeks to provide criteria for the adoption of Learning Management Systems for classroom education, to be a reference for institutions wishing to implement such systems in a quality environment with successful results. So also is expected to serve for those who already are under way, as an opportunity to see the improvements that can be carried out.

The product is aimed at higher education institutions, particularly those with government contributions that provide classroom education. The reason is that although the main objective for the various types (and distance) should be the same, ie to improve the quality of education being offered, differ widely in specificity and hence in the form to be taken the process. On the other hand is part of governmental institutions with contributions due to the difference in performance and organizational culture, and as a result of the factors that affect the implementation process.

The innovation process of teaching, with the characteristics described above, caution their effectiveness and efficiency through the gradual and planned introduction of new technologies. The model involves a preliminary stage of preparing the environment and 5 stages of development, ranging from awareness of innovation, which involves very strong cultural changes within the organization, to the consolidation of the use of the platform with a pedagogic course, that conforms to modern requirements of education and that maximizes the potential offered by these tools.

 

 

.

The preparation of the environment involves two preliminary events, to define a stage where there will be change (organizational culture) and another to define the strategic management process through the creation of a unit responsible.

The characterization of the organizational environment is composed of two events, the identification of organizational culture and identification of factors that may affect the normal development process. There are basic characteristics that must be considered, since they mark the whole organizational environment that you want to create or guide to the innovation process, ie a climate favorable to the process so to achieve motivation for innovation, greater productivity to the development process and greater commitment to the objectives. It should also identify the critical factors that can affect the overall process at various stages, to establish strategies to manage the benefit and development of its continuity.

The dimensions of a process of this nature and the implications it has for the institution, is necessary to have a central unit and responsible to lead, facilitate and enable the development of the process, according to the interests and guidelines of the institution.

To achieve an optimal product and operating it to reality to which it was created, is a sine qua non, the rigorous application of the steps required by the investigation and avoid the unnecessary. Is this the way a product gets real sense.

Applying this scientific argument, the proposed model is embedded and developed an implementation guide transferable and adaptable to other institutions. The first three stages, awareness of innovation, exploration of technological resources and exploration of pedagogical resources correspond to phases where the work is accentuated and the advancement of the process. In addition are the steps which establishes more clearly the methodology of work, for the continuation of the process.The last two phases, resource generation and integration of resources in the EA processes, are rather of establishing and consolidating results, where walking is already defined process and begins to formalize it.

The initial phase of this process of change, provides for the socialization of current topics. At this stage we explain to those involved (academic units, directors and teachers) vision of the institution in relation to the conduct of the process, laying the groundwork in the basic principles of educational model. You should also add to this, the importance of considering global aspects of technology integration in education, leading to effective use of them in the educational context, and finally it should be clear that the realization of the proposal should be made with support of a specialized central unit to guide and advise working with an institutional vision for meeting the strategic objectives of the organization.

The exploration phase of technological resources can be termed “Directed Testing Phase,” which means looking for the effective use of technological resources, based on the preparation of teaching materials and use of resources available on the platform without be a formal part of a training activity within the course. The focus of the phase will focus on the development of technological resources and the leveling of the technological skills of students and teachers.

The exploration phase of learning resources is done in parallel with the exploration phase of technological resources, so it is also considered a phase of “Test Driven”. The difference in the parallel phase is the research center, as it involves the selection and effective use of educational resources, combined with the technological resources in selection.

The focus of this phase is focused on the development of training, using the resources offered by the platform, incorporating the students’ active participation. So an important part of the phase equalization of teachers teaching to address issues such as instructional design, active methods of teaching and learning (collaborative work, PBL, case studies, etc.), Such assessments, educational use technological resources to support teaching, among others.

Phase Resource Generation, is working to establish a formal mechanism that involves project work, compiling and with educational and technological resources, previously evaluated in the stages of exploration, enabling reuse and adaptation in other subjects, through specific projects.

Integration Phase of resources in the teaching-learning process is aimed at establishing formal strategies and minimum requirements governing the introduction of innovations using ICT in the institution, which implies profound changes in the plans and curricula reflected in teaching practices.


  1.  
    1. Theory building – means to think.
    2. Access to Information
    3. Data Collection – Use of Technology to extend the senses.
      • Remote scientific instruments, accessible by Internet
      • Microcomputer-based laboratories with the support of sensors, probes, etc (Axis: http://www.pasco.com ).
      • Survey design templates available on the Internet.

B. Means of Communication.

  1.  
    1. Preparation of Documents.
    2. Communicating with Others – students, teachers, experts, etc …
    3. Ways to Collaborate
      • Preparation of Documents and Projects Group (Lotus Notes)
      • Collaborative Environments ( Connections , Globe )
    4. Means to Teach
      • Software tutoring or practice
      • Platforms for online courses

C. Media Construction

D. Means of Expression

Jonassen has raised a rating for content that can be used, according to its criteria, as tools of the mind. Consist of computer applications that, when used by students to represent what they know, necessarily involve critical thinking about what they are studying.

Technologies to support learning must provide is not to attempt the instruction of students but rather to serve as knowledge construction tools for students to learn with them, not them. In this way, students act as designers, and computers operate their Mindtools to interpret and organize their personal knowledge.

They consist of …

Can be used as …

Requires students …

SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION TOOLS

Databases. 
Registration systems structured information on a subject to make their organization and access. Access ,Lotus Approach ,InterBase , Easy Query, etc.).
Tool for analyzing and organizing a subject or topic of study. Produce a data structure, locate the relevant information, inserted into the appropriate fields and records, and to direct the database to answer questions of the content being studied.
Semantic networks 
Visual tools to produce concept maps. (Inspiration , CmapToolsVisiMap , Axon 2002 ,PiCo Map , SemNet ,Mind Mapper , Visual Mind , etc .)
Visualization tool based on the computer to interrelate the ideas that are being studied in multidimensional networks of concepts. Tool that allows to reflect the knowledge construction process. Analyze the structural relationships that exist in the content being studied. Compare semantic networks created at different times to serve as an assessment tool because they allow to appreciate the changes in thinking.

DATA INTERPRETATION TOOLS

Visualization tools. 
Tools that allow both represent mental images in the computer as visual reasoning. (ChemSketch ,MacSpartan , Adclabs , etc.).
Tools to help represent and communicate mental images in the form of initial approaches to these mental images. Real return that is abstract. Understand chemical concepts that are difficult to communicate and / or explain static presentations.

DYNAMIC MODELING TOOLS

Spreadsheets.Computerized numerical record keeping. Contain built-in utility for many disciplines, including finance, engineering and statistics. Excel ,Lotus 1-2-3 , etc) Tools that allow amplified mental functioning especially in classes where quantitative relationships work. They are useful when making decisions need to observe the effects or results they produce. Become producers of rules. Represent quantitative information, calculate and think about ella.Organicen datasets, to modify and interrelacionen.Apliquen functions, mathematical or logically manipulate values ​​in other cells.
Expert systems.Computer application that simulates the behavior of a human expert in making decisions on complex issues. Support for troubleshooting and tracking the acquisition of knowledge. Incorporate causal knowledge.
Systems Modeling Tools. 
Tools for building simulations of dynamic systems and processes are interactive and interdependent components. Stella ,Model-It , etc.).
Tools to develop complex mental representations. On the computer simulate complex mental representations of the phenomena they are studying.
Microworlds. 
Exploratory learning environments with constrained simulations of real world phenomena. (Supposer Geometric, Algebraic Supposer, Logo Micormundos LSCI,SimCalc , MathWorlds , etc.).
Multimedia tool that simulates real-life models in which objects can be manipulated or created to program and test the effects they exert on them. Dominate each environment before moving on to more complex environments.Control phenomena, change variables and observe the results of these changes.

TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE

Hypermedia 
Integrating over an electronic medium that allows the user to use at will and combine text, image and sound.Motion Studio ,Cresotech HotpancakeMedia Mixer , etc.).
Information retrieval systems.To create, hypermedia, knowledge bases that reflect their own personal understanding of ideas. Tools that give the opportunity to learn more, building materials, instruction, studying them. Experience as designers, enhance their ability to manage projects, research, organize, represent, present, and reflect on their work.

COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATION TOOLS

Chat, mailing lists, video conferencing, discussion groups, email, electronic newsletters. 
Synchronized and unsynchronized environments (synchronous and asynchronous), supported by computers and telecommunications. (Collaboratory NotebookMSN Messenger ,CyberNet Worlds ,Microsoft Portrait , etc.).
Real-world scenarios, often learn through social negotiation of meaning, not by what we enseñan.Apoyo communication between students, collection of information and help to solve problems in groups of estudiantes.Herramienta that enables direct communication with experts on a topic of study. Understand messages, think of appropriate responses and produce a coherent answer.(Many students do not have the capacity to participate with a speech clear, convincing and consistent.)

Factors influencing the integration of ICT into the curriculum

• Technology Resources 
• Educators 
• Digital Content 
• Institutional Support

REFERENCES 
CEO Forum “Year 3 Report. The power of Digital Learning: Integrating Digital Content “June 2000. www.ceoforum.org/ ).

Means, B. (1994). Introduction: Using Technology to Advance Educational Goals. In B. Means (Ed.), Technology and education reform: The reality behind the promise (pp. 1-21). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bruce, BC, Levin, JA “Educational Technology: Media for Inquiry, Communication, Construction, and Expression” Journal of Educational Computing Research, 1997, Vol.17 (1) pp 79 to 102. Available in http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/ ~ chip / pubs / taxonomy /

[4] Dewey, John (1943), “The Child and the Curriculum / The School and Society, University of Chicago Press

Publication of this document Eduteka: February 6, 2003. 
Last modify this document: February 6, 2003.

You may cite this document as follows: 
Eduteka, (2003, February 06), A Model for Integrating ICT in the Curriculum, Content, Eduteka, Issue 16, Downloads: Saturday February 17, 2007, in http://www.eduteka.org/tema_mes.php3?TemaID = 0017

Belloch, Consuelo. (2000). Education in the Information Society. University of Valencia, Spain.http://cfv.uv.es/belloch/Edu_tema2.htm .

Mesoamerican and Caribbean Workshop on Digital Library and Distance Education. G García, Fidel. The XXI Century University as a Model of Information Industry and Knowledge. University of Camagüey, Cuba (2001).

EIDOS Group Latin America. Prospects Virtual Training Through Internet: Introduction to the LMS. http://www.alhambra-eidos.com/html/index.html .

Marquis G, Pere. 2003. The Culture Technology in the Information Society. http://dewey.uab.es/pmarques .

Robbins, Stephen. (2004). Organizational Behavior. Publisher Pearson Education, 10 th Edition, Mexico.

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Velasquez E, Florentino. (2001). Information Society and Education. 1st Edition. Junta Extremadura, Counseling Education, Science and Technology, Directorate General of Planning, Renovation and Centers. Mérida.

Berrocoso V, Jesus. Analysis of descriptive and pedagogic on software platforms for the implementation of electronic learning (e-learning). University of Extremadura. Spain. http://www.sitat.com/nodoeducativo/infor04.htm