In formative assessment are different positions and approaches …
The model of D. Kirkpatrick is divided into 4 levels.
Level 1. Reaction, to measure the altitude of student satisfaction regarding the training they just received, usually the assessment is usually done by a questionnaire at the end of the course. The level of reaction is used to assess positive and negative teaching-learning process in its various dimensions, from infrastructure to meet the expectations, through teacher assessment.
Level 2. Learning: try to measure the knowledge acquired.Traditionally has included tests before and after the training, interviews and investigates content, learning activities, course structure, materials and tools, etc.
Level 3. Behavior: aimed at measuring the degree of application in the foreground job. Includes an analysis of what aspects or elements use most and why some are not used at all. It was conceived as an input for the improvement or redesign of courses. Should be applied after the completion of the course.
Level 4. Results: seeks to measure whether the objectives in the training in the organization are used effectively and efficiently. Its objective is to evaluate the benefit that has produced the training, the impact and changes made. Has traditionally been confined to the financial impact and hence its strong association with cost-benefit ratio remains a concern as central as it is difficult to measure.
Levels 1 and 2 are the most commonly used: a measure in 2002 by the American Society for Training and Development (USA) stated that 78% of organizations evaluate training activities through student satisfaction, 32% assessed learning, behavior and just 9% 6% reached level 4, …
|l Monitoring is the continuous and systematic process by which verifies the efficiency and effectiveness of a project by identifying the achievements and weaknesses and therefore recommended corrective measures to optimize the outcomes of the project. It is therefore a condition for the correction or enhancement of performance and feedback to ensure the objectives and theoretical and lessons learned from practice. It is also responsible for preparing and providing information that makes possible to systematize results and processes and, therefore, is a basic input for the evaluation.
Evaluation is integral and continuous process of research and analysis more or less permanent changes that materialize in the medium and long term, as a direct or indirect result of the work of a policy or project in context, the population and participating organizations. Therefore, it becomes a tool for transformation that sheds light on the alternatives to continuous improvement of the present and future interventions, or transfer best practices and learnings generated.
Of course, there are multiple types of assessment based both at the time of implementation (before, during, after) and their objectives or purposes. With regard to the latter, the proposal of Donald Kirkpatrick for Assessing training activities remains an important reference which can be either updated and gives some indication of interest for assessment gender and social equity, but has not taken into account in its formulation.
Now, with the extension of the competency based training, both assessment of learning as behavior become central, have a diffuse boundary, and curriculum design and assessment criteria include the “evidence of performance.” It has incorporated the hand self-assessment of participatory methodologies and the role of the subject in the educational processes. For their part, increasingly extends the use of educational software includes test simulation affecting progress to the following modules, etc. In turn, work is progressing, albeit with many difficulties, skill certification and quality management systems have also been measured and meet the satisfaction / customer / user / or to provide and enhance care management processes quality, develop benchmarks for it and to incorporate the goal of continuous improvement, also understood as a process. Concern for customer satisfaction has been first focused on the employers, the challenge of training relevant response to the requirements of the productive environment. And since the new century, one of the latest and greatest innovations refers to the wider range of actors involved in the generation of alternative labor market, collective and individual belonging to the territory, local development.
All these aspects and actors are being, to varying degrees, incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation and there is increasing agreement about which both are part of the policy, so it must be defined from the beginning and follow all the process of implementation.
Therefore, the evaluation, the line that says here, always has to look in both directions: live entertainment and performances if contextualized in reference systems.
- Avoid conceiving gender as a strictly numerical equal participation of women and men.
- Do not confuse the adoption of a gender perspective with a simple “equal treatment” to recipients and beneficiaries.
- Stop treating the beneficiaries – women and men – as a homogenous group.
- Take into account subjective dimensions.
- Consider, in all its extension, the implications that for employment, gender relations have both social and individual.
- Always keep in mind that the professional profile of people is part of a broader psychosocial profile. Both feedback and are determined. Not enough to act only on specific skills or techniques but it is necessary to intervene in other, more subjective, self-esteem, expectations, motivation, etc., In short form for employability and citizenship and, above all, strengthen the role of people in the teaching-learning processes and the definition and management of occupational projects.
- Presenting comprehensive interventions and actively engaged in innovation goals and quality improvement.
- Giving prominence to the participants in the processes of change, or face a participatory evaluation.
The nuclei of assessment model analysis are:
Subject of care: identification and evolution of socio-profile of men and women, taking the intersection with ethnicity, age, rural or urban, etc.. and providing comprehensive follow-up their careers and their social and labor quantitative and qualitative participation in training systems.
Subject outcomes of care: employability, participation in the development of new economic activities, quality and sustainability of employment, levels of employability, occupational diversification, improved incomes, reconciliation of roles between men and women.
Environment outcomes: breaking down barriers and social stereotypes regarding women’s work, change in values, actors and reproductive system, both in regard to socio-economic role of women as the commitment of actors with the problems of social exclusion, institutionalization of gender achievements within the entity responsible for its development.
Processes: innovative approach / traditional surgery, degree of closeness with the realities of their users / os and the labor market, active participation / os actors involved / os, explicit inclusion or not of the same gender and what level.
Faculty and the institution received training, changes, interaction with other learners, policy institutions, resources involved, etc..
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